عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Corresponding Author: mohammad keshavarz, Persian Language&Literature PhD student of Tehran Payam e noor University
Dr. mostafa Gorji, Persian Language&Literature Associate Professor of Tehran Payam e noor University
Subset of the system of social stratification, which encompasses a wide range of people, their actions and interactions in the society, effective and highly destructive and negative aspects, and has a lot costs to the society. Lumpans, in the center of the social class, presence in the field of community and social realist fiction writers have in our contemporary. Lumpans usually corrupted people who have no identity. Lumpenproletariat is a term that was originally coined by Karl Marx to describe that layer of the working class that is unlikely ever to achieve class consciousness and is therefore lost to socially useful production, of no use to the revolutionary struggle, and perhaps even an impediment to the realization of a classless society.
The word is derived from the German word Lumpenproletarier, a word literally meaning "miscreant" as well as "rag". The term proletarian was first defined by Marx and Friedrich Engels in The German Ideology (1845) and later elaborated on in other works by Marx. The Marxist Internet Archive writes that this term identifies the class of outcast, degenerated and submerged elements that make up a section of the population of industrial centers which include beggars, prostitutes, gangsters, racketeers, swindlers, petty criminals, tramps, chronic unemployed or unemployables, persons who have been cast out by industry, and all sorts of declassed, degraded or degenerated elements.
In the Eighteenth Brumaire, Marx rhetorically describes the lumpenproletariat as a "class fraction" that constituted the political power base for Louis Bonaparte of France in 1848. In this sense, Marx argued that Bonaparte was able to place himself above the two main classes, the proletariat and bourgeoisie, by resorting to the "lumpenproletariat" as an apparently independent base of power, while in fact advancing the material interests of the finance aristocracy.
For rhetorical purposes, Marx identifies Louis Napoleon himself as being like a member of the lumpenproletariat insofar as, being a member of the finance aristocracy, he has no direct interest in productive enterprises. This is a rhetorical flourish, however, which equates the lumpenproletariat, the rentier class, and the apex of class society as equivalent members of the class of those with no role in useful production.
The people who do not have jobs and steady income, live with false job and in many cases due to the bad economic situation and thinking, people do wrong things. One of the authors with a new look and far from the usual clichés to describe life has dealt Lumpans, is R. Parvizi. Parvizi in his works critically examines some hidden and Nagfth chaotic life of the cortex and underlying causes of these deals occurred. However, Parvizi attitude to the cortex - unlike a sociologist at - look inside the often serious and sometimes humorous only. Parvizi almost all the root causes of defects in material and spiritual life of Economic Summary provides the following classes. Parvizi almost all the root causes of defects in material and spiritual life of Economic Summary provides the following classes. However, many sociologists (especially positivists) they all abnormalities attributable to the issue of the economy needs to reflect more. Parviz biased view, despite Lvmpn highlight the negative aspects of behavior, with emphasis on income inequality and social facilities, at least some of the victims Lvmpn downtrodden image that society and the field of intellectual and spiritual growth they have been deprived of.