عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
this article aims at indicating how the process of production and reproduction of urban spaces in Tehran can be understood through reading the social novels produced during the Reza Pahlavi era (1300-1320). It is evident to us that urbanization and novel writing are closely intertwined. 'City' characterized as the carrier of modernity is more and more is taking shape based on the distinction between public and private spheres. Therefore, reporting on everyday life of the people who live in city space requires one to pay attention to a medium that has the capacity of reflecting it. Theoretically we have come to the conclusion that such medium is novel. In other words, people's everyday life in Tehran is reflected in that the social novels produced in that period. Among many novels of this period some are considered as more important in light of their references to urban spheres. They include novels such as “Tehrane Makhoof” written in 1301 and its second volume “Yadegare Yek Shab” produced in 1305 Iranian Calendar both by Moshfegh Kazemi, and “Tafrihaate Shab” published in 1311 Iranian Calendar by Mohammed Masoud and “Ziba” published in 1312 Iranian Calendar by Mohammed Hejazi.
The above mentioned novels are analyzed here using a qualitative content analysis with special reference to Lefwebr’s ideas. Henry Lefwebr has established the theory of “social reproduction of space” based on synthesizing Marx’s 'Dialectical Materialism', Hegel’s 'Consciousness' and Niche’s 'Language and Power'. Lefwebr offers a new vision on space, time and the relationships between these two in urban society in companion with the criticism of the inactive actor in the sphere of everyday life. In his view space is divided into three kinds of physical (natural), subjective and social one. 'Space' is basically a social entity which is produced and reproduced in each period of time in accordance with the demands of time and social, political and economic conditions. 'Space' is also a process; a dialectical process between the subjective and the objective matters that is discernible through the act of individuals, or as Lefwebr would say, between the spatial action and the spatialized body. One of Lefwebr’s problems has been to relate subject and object, that is why he has presented triads in order to relate these two, something that contributes formation of the theory of social reproduction of space. The first group of such triads includes representational spaces, spatial practices and space of representations.
In terms of methodological considerations we approach the sampling unit in our study based on the unified text (Holesty, 1373) which includes the three before-mentioned novels. We studies the whole texts as our unit of observation. In order to determine the recording unit (analysis unit) and in light of the hypotheses and research goals, three themes are firstly determined and then their theoretical and practical definitions are presented. These include 1- rhythms 2- production of sphere and 3- exchange value and consumption value.Using Lefwebrian concepts and determining the themes of rhythms, production of sphere, exchange value and consumption value, it was concluded that almost none of people in Tehran are active in production and reproduction of urban spaces and only a small strata of educated, westernized and modern people have reproduced the urban space in accordance with the contradictions of modernity. This is while the state, in accordance with its dominated ideology, has produced and reproduced these urban spaces for the purpose of strengthening its own power. Our findings related to analyzing the “cyclic rhythm” and “linear rhythm” shows that the city of Tehran has been in the starting point of its confrontation with modernity in that period.