عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
The Islamic period of the Iranian History suggests that the development of the Shiite art is an outcome of a continuous interaction and struggle between the political systems dominated in Iran and the Shiite beliefs system. Historically, the situation of the Shiite, as a resistance movement, has gradually changed to an established religion with its own theology. In other words, when the Shiite peoples were struggling to acquire the political legitimacy, they were not allowed to cite the names of the Shiite Imams anywhere except their mosques and mostly in inscriptions. However, when their position changed (for example in the Timurid period), they tried to make rational and narrative arguments and reveal their beliefs in the creative forms. Thus, the Shiite art has been a kind of resistant art and has been able to use even limited and smallest spaces for its own interests. The political domination of the Sunni religion in most parts of Iran has hindered the expression of the Shiite elements in art forms. This is especially the case in the Mongol period. However, these elements gradually appeared in creative works. Thus, Since the Illkhanian (Mongol successors), especially in the Timurid and Safavid period, we can see the presence of the Shiite thought and its intellectual arguments in the fine arts, especially in architecture and inscriptions. Accordingly, the main difference between the Shiite and Sunni mosques is not in the style or structure, but in the religious elements represented in the inscriptions. It seems that the impacts of social isolation or domination of the Shea in different periods of the Iranian history is evident in the art works of these religious groups. Therefore, the Shiite art is a reflection of the Shea position in political structure of the Iranian society and its relation to the Sunni religion. On the other side, it should be noted that the legends, myths and beliefs of the Iranian people and the Shiite beliefs are intermingled. Examples of this combination can be found in the popular paintings of holy shrines of Shiite Imams sons, Taziye, and tea houses. In fact, before the Safavid period the Shiite resistance in architecture is evident, but after that period, both fine and popular arts are full of Shiite religious elements. These latter popular art forms are richer and more creative than the former ones.